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Early 16th c. travelling actors.Considered vagabonds and thieves Later, a licenses were given to nobles for maintaining actors Thus, acting troupes came into being.
Acting Troupes :Played in the courtyards of taverns (called Inn-yards).
Temporary stage erected Permanent Theatres.
The 1st permanent theatre was James Burbage’s ‘The Theatre’
1564: On April 23 William Shakespeare was born.
1576: James Burbage obtains lease and permission to build an amphitheatre, The Theatre, in Shoreditch, London. The Lord Chamberlain’s Men played here from 1594 to 1596.
1577: Another open air amphitheatre called The Curtain opens in Finsbury Fields, Shoreditch, London.
1587: Open air amphitheatre The Rose, Bankside, Surrey is opened
1593: Theatres close due to the Bubonic Plague (The Black Death)
1594: The Lord Chamberlain’s Company (formally known as ‘Lord Strange’sMen’) was formed.
1595: March 15, First document mentioning Shakespeare connected with the Theatre.
1596: From 1596 to 1597 London’s authorities banned the public presentation of plays within the city limits of London
1596: James Burbage purchases Blackfriars and converts it to a theatre. Unable to get permission to open as a theatre and it stands empty.
1597: Dispute over the lease of ‘the Theatre’. The Puritan owner, Giles Allen disapproved of the Theatre and the acting troupe.
1597: Shakespeare’s troupe moved to the Curtain Theatre.
1598: Timber from the ‘Theatre’ taken to use for the building of a new theatre to be called the Globe.
1599: The Globe Theatre is opened on Bankside .
1600: Richard Burbage is forced to lease out Blackfriars.
1603: The Bubonic Plague (The Black Death) again ravages London killing 33,000 people – all theatres close.
1613: On June 29, Fire at the Globe Theatre.
1614: Globe Theatre was rebuilt on original foundations, this time the roof is tiled, not thatched.
1616: April 25, Burial of William Shakespeare in the chancel of Holy Trinity Church in Stratford.
1642: The English Civil War breaks out between the Parliamentarians (Puritans) and the Royalists 1642: On September 2, Parliament issues an ordinance suppressing all stage plays.
1644: On 15 April, Puritan landowner Sir Matthew Brend demolishes the Globe & builds houses on the site.
1647: Even stricter rules passed by the Puritans restricting the staging of plays.
1648: The Puritans ordered all playhouses to be pulled down, all players to be seized and whipped, and anyone caught attending a play to be fined five shillings.
1649: The Civil War finally leads to the terrible execution of King Charles I by the Parliamentarians (Puritans).
1653: Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector of England.
1658: Cromwell dies and the power of the Puritan starts to decline.
1660: The Restoration, and the end of the Puritan rule, sees the opening of the theatres again.
Round, wooden, roofless building.Three galleries of seats Pit (no seats) cost a penny “groundlings”. Main stage: 40 feet wide with a 27 feet projection into the pit Recessed inner stage (curtains and balcony) Music Room.
Quick Revision Points and important Points for UGC NET English literature Exam .
William Shakespeare and His Age
Lived during a great period in English history.
Reign of the Tudor queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603).
England emerged as the leading naval and commercial power of Europe.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588.
Spirit of nationalism
Protestant Church firmly established.
Sir Francis Drake, Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh pioneered the eastern navigations and colonial trade .
Last Tudor monarch; reigned 44 years.Became a cult figure, represented the glory of England.
Successfully defeated all plots against her Great military victory over the Spaniards (1588).
Led England to be one of the most powerful countries in the world.
Famed for being a virgin.
Epitome of beauty and greatness Moderate, tolerant, diplomatic.
“video et taceo” (I see, and am silent)
Popularity waned towards the end of her rule
London in the Elizabethan Age
London centre of culture and commerce beside the Thames.Growing population; dominant merchant class.
Immigrants from other towns A large number of poets and dramatists.
Drama most popular entertainment
Noisy, dirty, narrow streets
Despite Renaissance & Humanism, Elizabethan society was still primitive in science and technology.Printing was a luxury Even local travel was arduous and limited.
Scientists and witches were often mistaken as in the same trade.
A number of women were executed for witchcraft in England during the Renaissance.
Many literary works of the period bear testimony to the public interest in the subject.
The Concept of the Human Being
Renaissance scientists held that each individual is a microcosm that reflects and is in tune with the macrocosm of the universe.Everybody possessed a soul, for which the body was only an imperfect and temporary container.
Given the plague, political killings and incomprehensible diseases, death of the body was an everyday reality.
The human body was believed to be composed of the four elements—earth, water, air and fire—that manifested as the four humours—blood, phlegm, choler and melancholy.
Gender as Unstable The Renaissance people held that man and woman ultimately had the same bodies, arranged differently This involved the idea of gender as not biologically stable. This gives fresh insight into the practice of cross-dressing and gender.
Transgression in Renaissance plays Humours and the Great Chain.
The notion of the four humours A manifestation of the four elements .
Related to astronomical processes
Indicative of the 16th century conception of society as part of the “Great Chain of Being”.
Everything in the universe is interconnected, with God at the pinnacle.
This ordered and hierarchical society is headed by the monarch, who enjoys the Divine Right to govern the country and its people.
The Feudal Monarch
The monarch exerted his/her power through the court, a privileged group of the richest and most powerful aristocrats in the country.Below the aristocrats came the gentry and the citizens.The gentry, usually denoted by the title ‘Sir’, held their wealth as landed property outside London, inherited by birth or acquired by marriage.
The gentry exercised feudal authority over those who worked in their country estates; served the king at his court and raised an army for him as well, in times of need.
The Common Citizens Unlike the gentry, the citizens generally lived in London derived their wealth from trade never attended the court sponsored entertainments ran the “apprentice system” by which young men learned a trade as an employee of a master. From the citizens’ perspective, the courtier was an immoral, extravagant spendthrift, while the citizens themselves were associated with the virtues of hard work, thrift and honesty.
The courtiers in turn derided the citizens as unfashionable and vulgar. Strong ale common drink.
Family A “family” included not only the husband, wife and children, but even the servants, for they were actively involved in all affairs of the family. The Renaissance nobility married early, while the common folks married in their mid-twenties. The average life expectancy was 40 and many women died in childbirth Due to the high rate of child mortality, adults were probably more attached their siblings than to their own children. Family The husband was held as superior to the wife, physically, morally, intellectually and spiritually.
Children were regarded as miniature adults with unquestioning obedience expected of them.
Male anxiety about female infidelity was prevalent.
The greatest insult for a man was to sprout horns and turn into a cuckold.
The female counterpart of this phenomenon—cuckquean—was rarely used.
However in England, more than in the rest of Europe, there was more insistence on mutual affection and companionship in marriage.
The new geographic discoveries broadened imagination Influence of Italians like Dante, Aristotle & Petrarach
Fall of Constantinople
Immediate cause of the spread of learning– Fall of Constantinople (1453)Constantinople—capital of the Byzantine empire.
Byzantium (Eastern Roman Empire) refers to the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages (Romania) Established in the 4th c. AD by 1st Christian Roman Emperor, Constantine I.
The Byzantine Empire lasted a millennium.
Most powerful economic, cultural and military centre in Europe Byzantine-Ottoman wars since 12th century
Fall of Constantinople—1453 (Mahomet II defeats Constantine XI) and subsequent loss of all territories
Wave of Renaissance
Continued zeal for classical study.Development of a broad learning and Humanism.
The movement spread to Germany, Poland, France, and to other northern countries, where it developed into the wide scholarship and sound learning of men like Thomas More, Erasmus, and Copernicus.
The movement went far beyond the mere revival of classical studies and was felt in every aspect of life.
In philosophy it replaced the purely formal methods of thought of scholasticism, in favour of intellectual freedom.
In science it led to the great discoveries of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton.
In architecture it brought about the revival of the classical style.
In the fine arts it inspired new schools of painting in Italy, such as of Raphael, Leonardo, Bellini, Michelangelo.
In religion its influence can be seen in the revolt of Martin Luther.
It also indirectly inspired the passion for exploration that led to the discovery of the New World.
The Creation of Adam / Renaissance Art
The most famous section of the Sistine Chapel ceiling, located next to the Creation of Eve, epitome of Renaissance art.Differs from typical Creation scenes painted up until that time Two figures dominate the scene: God on the right, and Adam on the left.
God’s image is unconventional Depicted as an elderly, muscular, with grey hair and a long beard.
Wears only a light tunic which leaves his arms and legs exposed.
Founder of Renaissance humanism was Petrarch.Humanism originally meant Studying / teaching a curriculum including grammar, rhetoric, moral philosophy, poetry and history through classical literature.
Two concerns Centrality and dignity of man Study of classical texts.
Coincided with the flourishing of printing.
Religious and political ideas were debated in multitudes of pamphlets Ushered in new ideas.
Associated with the new idea of the “gentleman”( Edmund Spencer’s Fairee Queen).
Reflected in Italian courtesy books, such as Baldassare Castiglione’s Il Cortegiano (The Courtier), translated by Sir Thomas Hoby in 1561.
Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529) Italian nobleman and courtier.
Il Cortegiano (written in 1513-18, published 1528).
A discussion of the qualities of the ideal courtier . In the form of conversation.
Main themes: the nature of graceful behaviour, especially the impression of effortlessness (sprezzatura); the essence of humour; the best form of Italian to speak and write; the relation between the courtier and his prince (stressing the need to avoid flattery); the qualities of the ideal court lady (notably “a discreet modesty”); and the definition of honourable love.
Ideal of education Study of Greek, Latin, classics, use of the vernacular promoted. The complete education of. the gentleman promoted
Important figures: Roger Ascham, Sir Thomas Elyot
Roger Ascham (c. 1514-68)
Princess Elizabeth’s tutor in Greek & Latin.
The Schoolmaster (1570) Simple, lucid, English prose Offers a complete program of humanistic education.
Is also an evocation of the ideals of education.
Themes: psychology of learning, education of the whole person, & ideal moral & intellectual personality.
Toxophilus (“Lover of the Bow”, 1545) Written in the form of a dialogue.
Championed English proseMember of Thomas More’s circle Best-known work: The Book Named The Governor (1531).
A plan for the upbringing of gentlemen’s sons who were to bear authority in the future.
This book contributed to the ideal of the Renaissance gentleman.
Castel of Health (Offers a regimen of health)
Produced the first English dictionary of classical Latin
Desiderius Erasmus (c. 1467-1536)
Also called Erasmus of Rotterdam
Dutch humanist and scholar.
Thomas More was his good friend.
First editor of the New Testament
Moriae Encomium (The Praise of Folly, 1511).
Title is a pun on the name of Thomas More.
Folly ironically praises herself Satire on corruption and ignorance of the clergy
Other works: Adagia, Apophthegmata, Colloquia.
John Skelton (c. 1460-1529)
Informal “poet laureate” and academic.Was tutor to Henry VIII “Skeltonic verse”
irregular, energetic and satirical poetry.
linguistic and metrical innovations Resembles the poetry of John Donne Poem The Boke of Phyllyp Sparowe (1505).
a schoolgirl compares her love for her dead sparrow with other kinds of love .
Inspired by the Roman classical poet, Catullus
John Skelton: Works Many poems lost. Poem The Boke of Phyllyp Sparowe (1505) Jane Scroop, a schoolgirl, compares her love for her dead sparrow with other kinds of love . Inspired by the Roman classical poet, Catullus Colyn Cloute :Represents the average country man who gives his opinions on the state of the church
The name “Colin Clout” later used Spenser
Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
HumanistCourtier and Lord Chancellor to King Henry VIII.
Beheaded in 1535 for refusing to give up the authority of the Pope.
Utopia (Latin, 1516); trans. Ralph Robinson in 1551.
Utopia The principal literary work of Sir Thomas More.
An essay in two books. Originally written in Latin in 1516 Influenced by travelogues such as that by Amerigo Vespucci printed in 1507.
Opens with a historical event, a delegation to Bruges in 1515 in which Thomas More had taken part Utopia.
First book describes the oppressive injustices of England.
Second book contrasts England with Utopia, or “Nowhere Land,” described by the protagonist Raphael Hythloday, whom More claims to have met at Antwerp. In Utopia, there is complete individual freedom in social and religious spheres
Important Points , Pdf and Notes on Canterbury Tales.
The Canterbury Tales (c. 1487)
Based on Boccaccio’s Decameron
General Prologue—Portrait gallery of 14th c. England
29 pilgrims meet at Tabard Inn, Southwark (31 incl. poet & Harry Bailey)
Pen-pictures of 21 pilgrims 23 pilgrims tell stories 24 stories Chaucer tells two Tale of Sir Thopas and Tale of Melibeus (prose)
Begins with Knight’s Tale, ends with Parson’s (prose treatise). The Canterbury Tales ends with a “Retraction”, Chaucer’s apology for the vulgar and unworthy parts of this book, as well as previous works.
The General Prologue: The Beginning When the sweet showers of April have pierced the dry soil of March down to the roots, and bathed every vein in moisture so that from its vital power the flowers are born,When the West wind has also breathed upon the tender shoots in every glade and field with its sweet breath or the spring sun has completed half of its course through the sign of the Rain and little birds that sleep all night with eyes open (for the dawn) make their music because their hearts are so thrilled by nature, then People become anxious to go on pilgrimage, and palmers to seek strange shores (visiting the shrines) of distant saints famous in many lands and above all from the ends of every county in England, they proceed to Canterbury to seek the holy blessed martyr (St. Thomas) who has helped them when they were sick.
One day in that season, as I stayed at the Tabard Inn in Southwark ready to go with devout heart on my pilgrimage to Canterbury, there happened to come to the inn in the evening as many as twenty nine in a party, a mixed company whom chance had brought together and they were all pilgrims who planned to ride to Canterbury. Rooms and stable were ample and we were entertained comfortably in the best manner. And to be brief, by sunset I had spoken with everyone of them so that from thereon I became one of their party and we agreed to rise early to start our journey to Canterbury, as I describe it to you. But nevertheless, while I still have the time and space (and) before I continue this tale, I think it is reasonable to tell you all of the condition of each of them as it appeared to me and who they were and of what station and also the manner in which they were dressed; and I will begin with a Knight. The following pictures of the characters in The Canterbury Tales are some of the reproductions of the woodcuts of the Ellesmere portraits made by W.D. Hooper and published in the Sixth Edition of The Canterbury Tales, ed.
The Knight Member of the Household Group Along with his son Squire and Yeoman; the first to arrive Tabard Inn, after Chaucer. Epitome of chivalry “He was a verray parfit gentil knight” Represents ideals of truth, honour, generosity, courtesy, modesty and gentleness; prudent. Hero of over 15 religious battles (Crusades). Has come on the pilgrimage in his armour, the rust and oil of which has stained his clothes. Widely travelled and prudent.
Knight’s Tale The first tale in The Canterbury Tales The Knight tells the first tale because he drew the shortest straw, and because he is the most important character. The story of two Greek noblemen, Palamon and Arcite, who are cousins and duel with each other for the love of Emelye . Arcite wins, but is thrown off a horse and dies; Palamon wins Emelye. Story taken from Boccaccio’s Teseida Story retold by Shakespeare in Two Noble Kinsmen.
The Squire Son of the Knight Medium height, curly hair Was “as fresh as the month of May” “a lover. . . and lusty bachelor” “slept no more than doth a nightingale” Healthy and powerful – indication of lustfulness. Fashionably dressed in a short gown with long sleeves. Has fought battles like his father, but were for winning his lady loves. Humble and modest (chivalric). Spends leisure in singing, dancing and playing flute. Loves jousting. Tells an Oriental Tale of a falcon: talking to Canace about her husband’s adultery .
The Prioress Name was Eglantyne (meaning sweet briar). Beautiful, lady-like and romantic, pleasant and amiable. Her French was after the fashionable school of Stratford. Had fine table manners. Never let a morsel fall from her lips. Never dipped her finger too deep in the sauce. Wiped her mouth clean and there was no grease on her cup. Secretly amorous. Revealed her fine forehead. Wore a coral rosary with green beads and a brooch on which was the letter “A” (“Amor vincit omnia” or “Love conquers all”. Had with her a few small dogs, whom she loved more than human beings. Fed her dogs roast meat or milk white bread which was a rarity at that time Pretentiously tender-hearted. Would weep at the sight of a dead mouse. If any one beat her dogs or one of them dies, she cries bitterly, but didn’t care much for the suffering of human beings. Sang her service divine in a fashionable nasal tone. Swore fashionably by the oath of St. Loy Accompanied by three priests and a nun.
The Monk “A manly man, to be an abbot able” Shiny bald head and face, as if anointed with oil Compared to the Prioress in religious affectation. His sleeves were fringed with expensive fur and his cloak was pinned with a gold brooch. His eyes were bright and rolled in his head, which shone like a furnace.
Scorner of books. Did not follow the dull routine of prayer, study and fasting. Did not believe the saying that a monk out of his cloister is like a fish out of water. Disregarded the strict rules of St Maurice and St Benedict. Said, “Let Austin (Augustine) have his labour to him reserved” Loved hunting, full-blooded horses, good food (especially roasted swan) and fine clothes. His grey hounds were as swift as birds. His complexion was not pale but ruddy.
The Friar Wanton and merry. Belonged to the mendicant order. Supposed to live a poor life by begging But is more interested in love affairs of young people: “married many a woman at his own cost”. His bag is full of pins and knives which he gave to young wives to win their favour . Knew barmaids and tavern owners more than beggars and lepers. Good singer; plays the fiddle. Good at soliciting donations; takes bribes. His neck was as white as a lily. although he had an athletic body This might indicate his immorality or cowardliness. Lisps in an affected manner so that his English might sound sweet. Hubert was his name.
The Pardoner Chaucer’s masterpiece in character drawing. Implies a whole world of moral hypocrisy. Good story-teller; sing hymns beautifully. Has long, greasy, yellow hair and is beardless; probably homosexual. Wallet full of fake pardons “come from Rome all hot” In the medieval times, pardons or indulgences were issued from the Catholic Church, which sinners bought from the corrupt clergy. Collection of relics. He admits to the pilgrims that they are fake; that he will claim a sheep bone to have miraculous healing powers Had a pillow-case which he asserts is “Our Lady’s Veil”.
The Summoner Pardoner’s companion Lecherous, dishonest and “hot and wanton as a sparrow”. Children are afraid of his fiery-red face full of pimples. Had scaly eyebrows. Loves garlic, onion, leeks & blood-red wine; drinks to excess. Spouts the few Latin phrases he knows Took bribes; was disdainful of the teachings of the church. Had control over the young people of his diocese.
The Parson Ideal parish priest. Thought only holy thoughts and did only good deeds. Pious and devoted to his duty. Was very gentle, diligent, and always patient in the face of adversity. Did not look down on the parishioners for not donating money; gave them the little he had Preached only what he practised . Never left the parish to make money in London. Was a simple shepherd who wanted to save the souls of his sheep . Always asked himself “if gold rusts, what would iron do?”
The Clerk of Oxford A neutral portrayal Devoted to the study of philosophy (logic). He, as well as his horse, is lean as a pole. Was poor and wore threadbare clothes Rather than have a job and own worldly possessions, he would own 20 books. Whatever money his friends gave him is spent on books.Was eager to learn and to teach. Prayed for the souls of those who helped him study. Was polite, and spoke only when necessary. His speeches were short and often about morality. The Clerk’s Tale was a reply to the wife of Bath’s Tale, and is about the patient wife Griselda.
The Merchant Wealthy business man. Had a forked beard. Wore rich and multicolored clothes, and hat from Holland. Made sure everyone knew how wealthy and successful he is. Carried himself so well that no one realized he was heavily in debt. Newly and unhappily married. The narrator regrets that he doesn’t know his name. The Man of Law (The Sergeant of Law) Wise and slightly suspicious of everything. Spoke well. Had vast knowledge of law. Knows every statute of law by heart Can cite cases as far back as William the Conqueror’s time. Often appointed by the king as a judge in the court of assizes. Wealthy land-buyer; social climber Seemed busier than he really is Wore a multicolored coat that was tied together with a silk belt and some small pins.
The Franklin Man of Law’s companion Wealthy gentleman farmer of sanguine temperament (sociable and pleasure seeking). His beard was as white as a daisy Liked to have wine, with pieces of bread or cake dipped into it, in the morning. Because he loves pleasure, he is called the “son of Epicurus”. Was a good householder and is compared to St. Julian in his hospitality Meat and wine are so plenteous in his house that they are said to “snow” The Franklin. He kept fat partridges (bird) and many fish. If his sauce was not pungent and sharp, his cook would be in trouble Varied his food or supper according to the seasons of the year. At county meetings, he was representative and Chairman, and on many occasions, he had been Knight of the Shire. He has also been sheriff and legal auditor. A dagger and a hawking pouch hung at his girdle, which was as white as morning milk.. The Franklin’s Tale is a Breton Lay (story set in Brittany)
The Five Guildsmen The Five Guildsmen are artisans, and are newly rich, representing the urban middle class. They are a Haberdasher, a Carpenter, a Weaver, a Dyer and a Tapestry Maker They are dressed in the livery, or uniform, of their guild (workers’ union), which was fresh and newly trimmed. Their sword-sheaths were tipped with silver, and not brass, and their belts and purses were beautifully wrought after the same manner. Their wives undoubtedly pushed them to such a high position for they liked to be called “madams”. The guildsmen are accompanied by the Cook.
The Wife of Bath Gap-toothed : sign of boldness, gluttony and lasciviousness. Deaf in one ear (because of a slap from her previous husband). Expensive clothes. A hat that was as wide as a shield, sharp spurs, and a pleated cloak over her legs to keep the mud off her dress Scarlet stockings (sign of wealth) and comfortable new shoes. Kerchiefs were made of high-quality fabric, a veil that must have weighed ten pounds. Bath is famous for cloth-making and she was herself an expert in weaving / embroidery (even better than the famous weavers from Europe. Lived an honourable life Had five husbands at church door, and many lovers in her youth (the narrator says there is no need to talk about that now!). Now on the lookout for a sixth husband. She was pretentious. Always wanted to be the first wife at church to make a donation to the poor but if any woman made a donation before she did, the Wife would get angry and keep her money. Widely travelled in Italy, Spain; been to Jerusalem thrice. Rode her horse well. Loved to tell romantic tales and to gossip. Worldly in three ways Experienced in love. Wealthy. Travelled the world.
The Physician (The Doctor of Physique) Extremely good at his profession Learned man well-instructed in medicine and astronomy]. Knew of every disease and where it came from, and gave cure immediately He has made a deal with the apothecary about giving which medicines would benefit them most. Eats a simple, moderate diet that is healthy. But his spiritual health is not so good: he has little knowledge of the Bible He saved gold, because of his love of gold. The narrator says this is because “gold in phisik is a cordial” Two meanings: (i) medieval doctors used gold powder in potions (ii) Greed for money Dressed in bright red and blue gown made of the finest silk.
The Reeve Slender and choleric (irritable) man named Oswald. Came from Norfolk and lived near a town called Baldewelle . Head was tonsured (shaven) like that of a priest. Legs were lean and long like a walking stick. For twenty years, he has managed estates. Was fully in charge of his master’s sheep, cattle, dairy, swine, horses, stock and poultry. He was good at keeping a granary and a bin and no auditor could detect mistakes in his accounts. He could observe the seasons and foretell the harvest. There was no agent, shepherd or labourer whose deceits he did not know, and they hated him like the plague. His home was set amongst shady trees He could make purchases better than his master, and he had secretly enriched his own barns, while being careful to please his master. Good carpenter, a trade which he had learnt in youth . His low-bred, undersized horse was called Scot. He wore an overcoat of bluish grey tucked into his girdle like a friar, and carried a rusty sword. Always rode at the rear of the company.
The Shipman (The Sailor) Lived in the west country, and comes from Dartmouth. Wore a coarse gown and hung a dagger on a cord about his neck which passed down under his arm. The hot summer sun had made his complexion brown. Bold and prudent; beard shaken by many a tempest. Widely travelled. Undoubtedly he was a rascal. He had stolen much wine while the merchant slept. Not troubled by a scrupulous conscience, for he has thrown his prisoners into the sea. Expert in matters regarding the position of the moon, the tides, the currents and the perils of the seas His ship was called The Magdalen .
The Yeoman Wore a coat and hood of green and carried a bow and a sheaf of shiny sharp arrows fitted with peacock feathers under his pouch.Head was closely shaven and his face was brown Knew all the techniques of carpentry and carried a fine guard on his arm, a sword and shield on one side, and a finely decorated spear-shaped dagger on the other side. Wore a shining silver picture of St. Christopher on his breast. Also carried a horn which had a green baldric (belt) He is a Woodsman, compared to Robin Hood .
The Manciple Worked at a college for lawyers. Whether he bought for cash or on credit he always came out well and ahead of everyone else. He had more than 30 masters who were expert and skilled lawyers His masters would help him in any legal case that rose against him Yet, in spite of all this, the Manciple made fools of them all.
The Miller Short, stout fellow with big muscles and bones; can out-wrestle even a ram; there was no door that he could not heave off its hinge, or break open with his head by running at it. Had a broad beard red as a sow or fox Nostrils were of black and wide and his mouth was as big as a furnace. There was a wart on the tip of his thick nose, with a tuft of red hair on it, like the bristles in a sow’s ear. Robyn was his name. Fond of telling indecent tales. Expert in grinding corn. Stole corn by pushing the scales with his thumb, for which the narrator swears he had a “gold thumb” (This is against the saying that ‘An honest miller has a golden thumb’). Wore a white coat and blue hood A sword and a small round shield hung at his side. Played the bagpipe as the pilgrims left the town. Disrupts the Host’s story-telling order and insists on telling the second tale Tells a bawdy fabliau.
The Ploughman Parson’s brother. Wore a simple shirt. Wore a lowly labourer who worked with his hands. Sincere, humble and good at his work Thought only about God and the needs of other people. He donated a good portion of his income in paying tithes (taxes) to the church.
The Cook The Cook was employed by the Guildsmen. For them, he would boil chicken with marrow-bones, sharp flavoured powder and spice. He could recognize the flavour of London ale, and could roast, steam, boil and fry, make stew and bake a pie well. The narrator pities him for the running sore on his shin. His masterpiece was minced chicken in white sauce. His name is Roger .
The Host Acts as a guide to the pilgrims, like the director of a play. Built-in audience of the tales Impressive man; bold ,wise and well-instructed. Takes the tales seriously, becomes involved emotionally. Creates conflicts as much as he solves them. Quarrels with pardoner when he tries to sell fake pardons. Makes fun of the Cook’s drunken state His name was Harry Bailey.
The Narrator Chaucer himself The narrator’s accounts of the other pilgrims show the narrator’s own prejudices and interests. Depicted as fat, sociable and naïve, eager to think well of others (this, however, amounts to irony). For example, he says the Wife led an honourable life and goes on to describe her lasciviousness, says the Summoner is gentle and kind and goes on to talk about his taking bribes and seducing girls.
Important points for English literature Exam on Geoffrey Chaucer.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1340-1400)
Father of English poetry
First poet of national importance Genius recognized in all ages including his own
His career is divided into three phases: French period , Middle period, Italian period, or French period, Italian period, English period
Patron—John of Gaunt
Wrote in East Midland dialect
Chaucer’s Life (c. 1340-1400) Son of a wealthy London vinter (wine merchant)
Educated at St Paul’s Cathedral School, and later at Inner Temple, where he studied law
In 1357, he became a noblewoman’s page, and moved on to become a courtier, a diplomat, and a civil servant
Chaucer was captured by the French during the Brittany expedition of 1359, but was ransomed by the king
From 1360 to 1366 nothing is known about his life.
Family Around 1366, Chaucer married Philippa Roet, a lady-in-waiting in the queen’s household. They are thought to have had two children, Thomas and Lewis, and probably a daughter, Elizabeth.
A Treatise on the Astrolabe is dedicated to Lewis.
Philippa’s sister, Katherine Swynford, later became the third wife of John of Gaunt, the king’s fourth son and Chaucer’s patron.
In 1367, King Edward III granted Chaucer a life pension for his services.
Official Life Edward III sent him on diplomatic missions to France, Genoa and Florence (c. 1368-1378). His travels exposed him to the work of authors such as Dante, Boccaccio and Froissart. In 1374, Chaucer was appointed comptroller of the London customs. In 1386, he was elected member of parliament for Kent, and he also served as a justice of the peace. In 1389, he was made clerk of the king’s works, overseeing royal building projects. He held a number of other royal posts, serving both Edward III and his successor Richard II.
Death Chaucer died in 1400 of unknown causes. There is a speculation that he might have been murdered. He was buried at what is called Poets’ Corner in Westminster Abbey. He was the first poet to be buried in the Abbey. This was because he had been Clerk of Works to the Palace of Westminster.
Geoffrey Chaucer: Works
Early period (up to c. 1370) Translation of Roman de la Rose The Book of the Duchess
Middle period (up to c. 1387)
The House of Fame The Parliament of Fowls Translation of Consolation of Philosophy Troilus and Criseyde The Legend of Good Women
Last period (after 1387) The Canterbury Tales
The Book of the Duchess (c. 1368-72) First of Chaucer’s dream visions. Octosyllabic couplets. Long prologue. Depicts the sorrow of a bereaved knight (who represents John of Gaunt) An allegorical lament on the death of Blanche, the wife of John of Gaunt, who died in 1368 Lydgate’s A Complaynt of a Loveres Lyfe is based on it . Poet unable to sleep because of love-sickness or depression. Falls asleep while reading Ovid In his dream, he first follows, then wanders away from, a hunting party Meets a knight in black who laments the loss of his lady. Knight describes her beauty and virtue Tells the dreamer about her death, first metaphorically, then explicitly. Hunters re-appear, a bell strikes twelve, and the dreamer wakes.
The House of Fame (after 1374) Unfinished dream allegory in octosyllabic couplets. Allegorical meanings of this poem not very clear. Echoes of Ovid, Virgil, Dante Langland’s The Temple of Glass and Alexander Pope’s The Temple of Fame are based on it. The poet dreams and finds himself in a glass temple adorned with images of the famous warriors and lovers. He emerges into a desert and is carried off by a talking eagle (a common guide in dream allegories). He is dropped next to a tower of ice on which the names of the famous are melting and unreadable. He enters a castle and sees Fame, a woman of varying heights, with numerous eyes, ears and tongues He watches people being indiscriminately awarded or refused fame and notoriety and learns of the arbitrary nature of fame The eagle then guides him into the house of Rumour built of sticks The dreamer is approached by an imposing figure when the poem ends abruptly. The book has been described as a parody of Dante’s Divine Comedy .
The Parliament of Fowls (c. late 1370s-early 1380s) Dream allegory in the seven-lined Chaucerian stanza. Rhyme scheme ababbcc Believed to be an allegory on the betrothal of King Richard II to Anne of Bohemia. The poet falls asleep while reading Cicero’s The Dream of Scipio in which Africanus appears to Scipio in a dream and shows him heaven and the future. Similarly, the Chaucerian dreamer is led by Africanus to a garden where he visits the temple of Venus In Venus’s palace, the goddess of Nature oversees the birds choosing their mates on St. Valentine’s Day. Three male eagles want to choose the same female eagle. Nature asks the female herself to choose a suitor and the female asks leave to wait a year.
Troilus and Criseyde (completed by 1388) Finished poem in Chaucerian stanza. Chaucer’s longest single poem. Modelled on Boccaccio’s Filostrato . Less cynical and misogynistic than Boccaccio’s version Resembles courtly romance
The Legend of Good Women Written in decasyllabic couplets (heroic couplet). A Prologue and nine tales Theme: betrayal of good women by wicked men Stories of Cleopatra, Thisbe, Dido, Hypsipyle & Medea, Lucrece, Ariadne, Philomela, Phyllis, Hypermnestra . Incomplete Believed to be a palinode, retracting Chaucer’s earlier depiction of woman as bad in Troilus and Criseyde.
And as for me, though that I konne but lyte, On bokes for to rede I me delyte, And to hem yive I feyth and ful credence, And in myn herte have hem in reverence So hertely, that ther is game noon That fro my bokes maketh me to goon, But yt be seldom on the holyday, Save, certeynly, whan that the month of May Is comen, and that I here the foules synge, And that the floures gynnen for to sprynge, Farewel my bok and my devocioun!
Whenever I feel sad, disappointed and depressed , I go to Temple of Lord Hanuman. It’s is saying that Lord Hanuman is the son of wind and he has blessings of God Shankar . In India everyone knows about lord Hanuman so I will not talk so much in his praise.
My intention is to give message to all of you that just believe in God . That is the only place where you will get positivity,a lots of positivity, courage,strenght,new life and a lot of power to fight from your devil’s. You are not alone who are doing wrong thing or with whom things are going wrong. There are millions of people who is sitting like you in front of god in temple,church, masjid etc, and they are praying. If you feel depress or unmotivated, just read two or three pages of Holy Bible, or Holy Geeta or Holy Kuran, and learn from it that what God is trying to say you. Take it in a positive way not in a negative way and you will get strength for your whole day.
I am not praising or advertising any god but I would like to say you that read some quotes from Geeta and you will get inspired. Read some quotes in following:
Don’t think that nothing bad can happen with you , it’s a normal process in everyone’s life and you must go through this. If there is light then there is dark also, if there is sun then there is moon too for night, there is birth and death . There is opposite of everything. Same as it when sadness come in your life then happiness will also come in your life. There is nothing worth living.
Make your own rules in your life and must follow it. Universe is following the rule so therefore you must follow rules. Become example for other .
For attractive lips, speak words of kindness. For lovely eyes, seek out the good in people. For a slim figure, share your food with the hungry. For beautiful hair, let a child run his fingers through it once a day. For poise, walk with the knowledge you’ll never walk alone. … We leave you a tradition with a future. The tender loving care of human beings will never become obsolete. People even more than things have to be restored, renewed, revived, reclaimed and redeemed and redeemed and redeemed. Never throw out anybody.
Remember, if you ever need a helping hand, you’ll find one at the end of your arm. As you grow older, you will discover that you have two hands: one for helping yourself, the other for helping others.
Your “good old days” are still ahead of you, may you have many of them. Sam Levenson
To be so strong that nothing can disturb your peace of mind. To talk health, happiness, and prosperity to every person you meet.
To make all your friends feel that there is something in them To look at the sunny side of everything and make your optimism come true.
To think only the best, to work only for the best, and to expect only the best. To be just as enthusiastic about the success of others as you are about your own.
To forget the mistakes of the past and press on to the greater achievements of the future. To wear a cheerful countenance at all times and give every living creature you meet a smile.
To give so much time to the improvement of yourself that you have no time to criticize others. To be too large for worry, too noble for anger, too strong for fear, and too happy to permit the presence of trouble.
To think well of yourself and to proclaim this fact to the world, not in loud words but great deeds. To live in faith that the whole world is on your side so long as you are true to the best that is in you. Christian D. Larson, Yo
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O my Luve is like a red, red rose That’s newly sprung in June; O my Luve is like the melody That’s sweetly played in tune.
So fair art thou, my bonnie lass, So deep in luve am I; And I will luve thee still, my dear, Till a’ the seas gang dry.
Till a’ the seas gang dry, my dear, And the rocks melt wi’ the sun; I will love thee still, my dear, While the sands o’ life shall run.
And fare thee weel, my only luve! And fare thee weel awhile! And I will come again, my luve, Though it were ten thousand mile.
Annabel Lee,” by Edgar Allan Poe
It was many and many a year ago, In a kingdom by the sea, That a maiden there lived whom you may know By the name of Annabel Lee; And this maiden she lived with no other thought Than to love and be loved by me.
I was a child and she was a child, In this kingdom by the sea: But we loved with a love that was more than love— I and my Annabel Lee; With a love that the winged seraphs of heaven Laughed loud at her and me.
And this was the reason that, long ago, In this kingdom by the sea, A wind blew out of a cloud, chilling My beautiful Annabel Lee; So that her highborn kinsman came And bore her away from me, To shut her up in a sepulchre In this kingdom by the sea.
The angels, not half so happy in heaven, Went laughing at her and me— Yes!—that was the reason (as all men know, In this kingdom by the sea) That the wind came out of the cloud by night, Chilling and killing my Annabel Lee.
But our love it was stronger by far than the love Of those who were older than we— Of many far wiser than we— And neither the laughter in heaven above, Nor the demons down under the sea, Can ever dissever my soul from the soul Of the beautiful Annabel Lee:
For the moon never beams, without bringing me dreams Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And the stars never rise, but I feel the bright eyes Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side Of my darling—my darling—my life and my bride, In her sepulchre there by the sea, In her tomb by the sounding sea.