Important Points on Tudar Period for UGC NET , PGT TGT English literature Notes
- Intellectual background: Renaissance Associated movements: Humanism & Reformation.
- The new geographic discoveries broadened imagination
Influence of Italians like Dante, Aristotle & Petrarach
- Literary experimentation.
Fall of Constantinople
- Immediate cause of the spread of learning– Fall of Constantinople (1453)Constantinople—capital of the Byzantine empire.
- Byzantium (Eastern Roman Empire) refers to the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages (Romania)
Established in the 4th c. AD by 1st Christian Roman Emperor, Constantine I.
- The Byzantine Empire lasted a millennium.
- Most powerful economic, cultural and military centre in Europe
Byzantine-Ottoman wars since 12th century
- Fall of Constantinople—1453 (Mahomet II defeats Constantine XI) and subsequent loss of all territories
Wave of Renaissance
- Continued zeal for classical study.Development of a broad learning and Humanism.
- The movement spread to Germany, Poland, France, and to other northern countries, where it developed into the wide scholarship and sound learning of men like Thomas More, Erasmus, and Copernicus.
- The movement went far beyond the mere revival of classical studies and was felt in every aspect of life.
- In philosophy it replaced the purely formal methods of thought of scholasticism, in favour of intellectual freedom.
- In science it led to the great discoveries of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton.
- In architecture it brought about the revival of the classical style.
- In the fine arts it inspired new schools of painting in Italy, such as of Raphael, Leonardo, Bellini, Michelangelo.
- In religion its influence can be seen in the revolt of Martin Luther.
- It also indirectly inspired the passion for exploration that led to the discovery of the New World.
The Creation of Adam / Renaissance Art
- The most famous section of the Sistine Chapel ceiling, located next to the Creation of Eve, epitome of Renaissance art.Differs from typical Creation scenes painted up until that time
Two figures dominate the scene: God on the right, and Adam on the left.
- God’s image is unconventional
Depicted as an elderly, muscular, with grey hair and a long beard.
- Wears only a light tunic which leaves his arms and legs exposed.
- Founder of Renaissance humanism was Petrarch.Humanism originally meant Studying / teaching a curriculum including grammar, rhetoric, moral philosophy, poetry and history through classical literature.
- Two concerns
Centrality and dignity of man
Study of classical texts.
- Coincided with the flourishing of printing.
- Religious and political ideas were debated in multitudes of pamphlets
Ushered in new ideas.
- Associated with the new idea of the “gentleman”( Edmund Spencer’s Fairee Queen).
- Reflected in Italian courtesy books, such as Baldassare Castiglione’s Il Cortegiano (The Courtier), translated by Sir Thomas Hoby in 1561.
- Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529) Italian nobleman and courtier.
- Il Cortegiano (written in 1513-18, published 1528).
- A discussion of the qualities of the ideal courtier . In the form of conversation.
- Main themes: the nature of graceful behaviour, especially the impression of effortlessness (sprezzatura); the essence of humour; the best form of Italian to speak and write; the relation between the courtier and his prince (stressing the need to avoid flattery); the qualities of the ideal court lady (notably “a discreet modesty”); and the definition of honourable love.
- Ideal of education
Study of Greek, Latin, classics, use of the vernacular promoted. The complete education of. the gentleman promoted
- Important figures: Roger Ascham, Sir Thomas Elyot
Roger Ascham (c. 1514-68)
- Princess Elizabeth’s tutor in Greek & Latin.
- The Schoolmaster (1570)
Simple, lucid, English prose Offers a complete program of humanistic education.
- Is also an evocation of the ideals of education.
- Themes: psychology of learning, education of the whole person, & ideal moral & intellectual personality.
- Toxophilus (“Lover of the Bow”, 1545) Written in the form of a dialogue.
- The first book on archery in English
Read more Quotes by Roger Ascham https://www.enquoted.com/roger-ascham-quotes.html
Thomas Elyot (c. 1490-1546)
- Championed English proseMember of Thomas More’s circle
Best-known work: The Book Named The Governor (1531).
- A plan for the upbringing of gentlemen’s sons who were to bear authority in the future.
- This book contributed to the ideal of the Renaissance gentleman.
- Castel of Health (Offers a regimen of health)
- Produced the first English dictionary of classical Latin
Desiderius Erasmus (c. 1467-1536)
- Also called Erasmus of Rotterdam
- Dutch humanist and scholar.
- Thomas More was his good friend.
- First editor of the New Testament
- Moriae Encomium (The Praise of Folly, 1511).
- Title is a pun on the name of Thomas More.
- Folly ironically praises herself
Satire on corruption and ignorance of the clergy
- Other works: Adagia, Apophthegmata, Colloquia.
John Skelton (c. 1460-1529)
- Informal “poet laureate” and academic.Was tutor to Henry VIII
- irregular, energetic and satirical poetry.
- linguistic and metrical innovations Resembles the poetry of John Donne
Poem The Boke of Phyllyp Sparowe (1505).
- a schoolgirl compares her love for her dead sparrow with other kinds of love .
- Inspired by the Roman classical poet, Catullus
- John Skelton: Works
Many poems lost.
Poem The Boke of Phyllyp Sparowe (1505)
Jane Scroop, a schoolgirl, compares her love for her dead sparrow with other kinds of love .
Inspired by the Roman classical poet, Catullus
Colyn Cloute :Represents the average country man who gives his opinions on the state of the church
- The name “Colin Clout” later used Spenser
Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
- HumanistCourtier and Lord Chancellor to King Henry VIII.
- Beheaded in 1535 for refusing to give up the authority of the Pope.
- Utopia (Latin, 1516); trans. Ralph Robinson in 1551.
The principal literary work of Sir Thomas More.
- An essay in two books.
Originally written in Latin in 1516
Influenced by travelogues such as that by Amerigo Vespucci printed in 1507.
- Opens with a historical event, a delegation to Bruges in 1515 in which Thomas More had taken part
- First book describes the oppressive injustices of England.
- Second book contrasts England with Utopia, or “Nowhere Land,” described by the protagonist Raphael Hythloday, whom More claims to have met at Antwerp. In Utopia, there is complete individual freedom in social and religious spheres