Works of William Shakespeare . Free Notes and Litchart PDFs on william Shakespeare works.

William Shakespeare

Important points on william Shakespeare works and free pdf notes. UGC NET PGT English TGT English literature Notes.

Shakespeare chronology

Early comedies of Shakespeare

Love’s Labour’s Lost (printed 1598)

  • No major source.Has elements of comedy of manners
  • Themes
  • Pretensions are deflated.
    Love conquers all.
  • Unrealistic atmosphere of games and festive play.
  • At the end, characters achieve maturity in the real world and the promise of future happiness.
  • The King of Navarre and his three lords have sworn celibacy for 3 years.
  • They fall in love with the princess of France and her attendant ladies
  • Other major characters
  • Don Adriano de Armado, a Spaniard, who uses extravagant language.
  • The pedantic schoolteacher Holofernes .
  • Dull the constable
  • Costard the clown, who speaks the long Latin word.
  • honorificabilitudinitatibus” (“the state of being loaded with honours”)
  • Play ends with the songs of the cuckoo and the owl .
  • The play-within-the-play of the Nine Worthies occur here.
  • Here the actors dress up as Muscovites (people from Moscow)
    This play has been called Mozartian (Mozart-like).
  • Mozart also created operatic comedies of human frailty.
  • Mixed high and low elements
    Offered lyrical leaps of fancy
  • Influence of Commedia dell Arte

Download pdf of Litchart for detail study

The Two Gentlemen of Verona 1594 perfomed and 1623 printed

  • Two major sources
  • Story of Titus and Gisippus from Boccaccio’s Decameron .
  • Portuguese author Jorge de Montemayor’s Spanish work Diana Enamorade.
  • Theme of male friendship disturbed by sexual jealousy as in Lyly’s Euphues .
  • Based on two literary tradition
    “Friendship literature” of the Middle Ages.
  • The romantic narrative.

The Plot

  • Valentine and Proteus are friends.
  • Proteus loves Julia.
  • Valentine goes to Milan and falls in love with Silvia.
  • Proteus also sets off on his travels and in Milan is captivated by Silvia.
  • Julia comes to Milan in disguise.
  • The betrayer Proteus finally repents.
    Other major characters
  • Lance, the clownish servant of Proteus and his dog Crab

The Comedy of Errors (perf. in 1594)

  • Conforms to the three unities.Principal source is Plautus’s The Menaechmi
  • Also influenced by
    Plautus’s Amphitryon
  • The medieval Gesta Romanorum (later source for The Merchant of Venice).
  • Confessio Amantis (later source for Pericles)
  • Themes
  • The essential human condition.
  • The web of domestic and political relationships.
  • Situation of women in Elizabethan society.
  • Redeeming power of love

The Plot

  • A short farceThe places Syracuse and Ephesus are enemies.
  • Egeon, an old Syracusan merchant, is arrested in Ephesus.
  • One of his twin sons (both named Antipholus, attended by twin slaves named Dromio) is separated and lives in Ephesus.
  • So does his wife Emilia, who is now an Abbess.
  • After much comedy resulting from mistaken identity, the family is re-united.

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Published by Lucky Saxena

I am lucky saxena. Post Graduate student. Trying to fill some enthusiasm in everyone and provide UGC NET PGT TGT English literature Free Notes to everyone who can not reach to money oriented website or coaching. Try to spread kindness, knowledge and love through my blog.

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